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· 3 min read
Hreniuc Cristian-Alexandru

Useful documentation with examples:

Connect to the postgresql

psql -p 5432 -h localhost -U postgres -W

Database and Schema

Show all databases

\l
# Or
SELECT datname FROM pg_database;

Switch to another database

Similar to USE from mysql.

\c databasename

Create database

Documentation

CREATE DATABASE test_db;

Drop/Delete database

Documentation

DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS test_db;

A database may contain multiple schemas, which groups tables from a database. By default public schema is created for every database. And also you don't have to specify it in your queries, eg: public.staff is the same as staff. More examples and documentation can be checked here

User/Role

Show all users

\du
# With description
\du+
# Or sql
SELECT rolname FROM pg_roles;

Create a user

Documentation

CREATE USER test_user WITH PASSWORD 'pass';

Grant user rights to connect to db

GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE test_db TO test_user;

Try to connect afterwards:

psql -p 5432 -h localhost -U test_user -W -d test_db

Create superuser

Documentation

CREATE ROLE test_user2 WITH LOGIN SUPERUSER CREATEDB PASSWORD 'pass';
# Connect afterwards
psql -p 5432 -h localhost -U test_user2 -W -d postgres

Alter user, add createdb rights

ALTER ROLE test_user2 WITH CREATEDB;

Grant all privileges on the database

Documentation

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE test_db TO test_user2;

Common users

You ussually need the following users:

Reader:

CREATE USER reader_user WITH PASSWORD 'reader_user';
GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE test_db TO reader_user;

\c databsename
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES
FOR USER reader_user
IN SCHEMA public
GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO reader_user;

Writer:

CREATE USER reader_writer WITH PASSWORD 'reader_writer';
GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE test_db TO reader_writer;

\c databsename
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES
FOR USER reader_writer
IN SCHEMA public
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON TABLES TO reader_writer;

Admin

CREATE USER admin WITH PASSWORD 'admin';
GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE test_db TO admin;

\c test_db
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES
FOR USER admin
IN SCHEMA public
GRANT ALL ON TABLES TO admin;

Tables

Create table

Documentation, official documentation

CREATE TABLE accounts (
user_id serial PRIMARY KEY,
username VARCHAR ( 50 ) UNIQUE NOT NULL,
password VARCHAR ( 50 ) NOT NULL,
email VARCHAR ( 255 ) UNIQUE NOT NULL,
created_on TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
last_login TIMESTAMP
);

CREATE TABLE address (
id serial PRIMARY KEY,
name VARCHAR ( 50 ) NOT NULL
);

CREATE TABLE people (
id serial PRIMARY KEY,
name VARCHAR ( 50 ) NOT NULL
);

Describe table

Documentation

\d accounts

Show tables

Documentation

\dt+

Grant SELECT on table

Documentation, Official docs

First you need to connect with an user that has grant privileges and then switch to the database that contains that table:

\c test_db
GRANT SELECT ON accounts TO test_user;

Grant select on all tables even when new tables are added*

Documentation, official documentation

ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES IN SCHEMA public
GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO test_user;

· 2 min read
Hreniuc Cristian-Alexandru

Official docker image for postgresql.

Official docker image for pgadmin4.

Docker compose file

The docker compose file has been taken from here.

Environments

This Compose file contains the following environment variables:

  • POSTGRES_USER the default value is postgres
  • POSTGRES_PASSWORD the default value is changeme
  • PGADMIN_PORT the default value is 5050
  • PGADMIN_DEFAULT_EMAIL the default value is [email protected]
  • PGADMIN_DEFAULT_PASSWORD the default value is admin
version: "3.5"

services:
postgres:
container_name: postgres_container
image: postgres
environment:
POSTGRES_USER: ${POSTGRES_USER:-postgres}
POSTGRES_PASSWORD: ${POSTGRES_PASSWORD:-changeme}
PGDATA: /data/postgres
volumes:
- postgres:/data/postgres
ports:
- "5432:5432"
networks:
- postgres
restart: unless-stopped

pgadmin:
container_name: pgadmin_container
image: dpage/pgadmin4:6.13
environment:
PGADMIN_DEFAULT_EMAIL: ${PGADMIN_DEFAULT_EMAIL:-[email protected]}
PGADMIN_DEFAULT_PASSWORD: ${PGADMIN_DEFAULT_PASSWORD:-admin}
PGADMIN_CONFIG_SERVER_MODE: "False"
volumes:
- pgadmin:/var/lib/pgadmin

ports:
- "${PGADMIN_PORT:-5050}:80"
networks:
- postgres
restart: unless-stopped

networks:
postgres:
driver: bridge

volumes:
postgres:
pgadmin:

Start services

docker compose up -d

Access to postgres:

  • localhost:5432
  • Username: postgres (as a default)
  • Password: changeme (as a default)

Access to PgAdmin:

  • URL: - http://localhost:5050
  • Username: [email protected] (as a default)
  • Password: admin (as a default)

Add a new server in PgAdmin:

  • Host name/address postgres_container
  • Port 5432
  • Username as POSTGRES_USER, by default: postgres
  • Password as POSTGRES_PASSWORD, by default changeme

Logging

There are no easy way to configure pgadmin log verbosity and it can be overwhelming at times. It is possible to disable pgadmin logging on the container level.

Add the following to pgadmin service in the docker-compose.yml:

logging:
driver: "none"

reference

Access between containers

They share a bridge network, to connect pgadmin to postgresql, you should use postgres_container as a dns in the pgadmin container.

Using the psql client from ubuntu

Install

sudo apt-get install postgresql-client

Connect to the postgresql

psql -p 5432 -h localhost -U postgres -W